MASS ESTIMATE TABLE

                                                   Gregory S. Paul, March 2010

(largely based on models)

kg = k(femur [or other long bone] length [usually in decameters])3

taxon    k      model femur length*     model volume ml  x specific gravity = model mass g                                
specimen (modeled 1st):  kilograms:  femur or other long bone length (usually decameters)

                                             *0.5253 = 0.145

DINOSAURS -

SAUROPODS                             femur   trunk     neck    tail      total   neck x 0.6 rest x0.9
& legs  & head                           

Giraffatitan                      3.45     .525      480       75      25       590    .045+.455=.500                     
HMN MB.R.2181: 31500 (neck 2800):~20.90  “XV2”: ~45000:~23.50

Brachiosaurus                ~4.15        "      ~590     ~75     ~25     ~700     " +.554=~.600          
FMNH P25107:  ~35000: 20.30 

Europasaurus                 ~3.2          "     ~465      ~39     ~23    ~527     .023+.440=~,463      
Composite: ~760:~6.20

Camarasaurus                  4.0          "         542        51      55      648     .041+.537=.578
CMNH 11393: 14200 (neck 1000): 15.25  AMNH 5761: ~23000:18.00
juvenile                         3.5          "         486        40      55      581     .024+.487=.511
CMNH 11338: 640:5.67

Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum     
                                   ~4.9         "      ~655     ~154     ~32    ~841     .092+.618=.710
IVPP V10603: 75000:~25.00
M. hochuanensis               5.6          "         709       200      60     969      .120+.692=.812
IVPP 3: 13800 (neck 2000):13.50)
M. youngi                          4.3          "        555       130    ~45      730   .078+.540=.618
ZDM 0083: 6700:11.60

Omeisaurus                       3.7          "         484        94      53      631    .056+.483=.539
ZDM T5701: 8400 (neck 870):13.10

Euhelopus                        ~3.9         "         506        96    ~48      650    .068+.499=.567
PMU R233(B):  ~3400: 9.55  PMU R232(A): ~2850:~9.00

Spinophorosaurus               3.7          "        520         42      46      608    .025+.509=.534
GCP-CV-4229:  6600: 12:15

Shunosaurus                     1.7          "         230        14      38      282    .008+.241=.250
ZDM 5402: 2980: 12.00
juvenile                          2.2           "         302         22     40      364    .013+.309=.321
ZDM 5401: 1130: 8.05

Datousaurus                      2.5         "         360         33     25      418    .020+.347=.367
IVPP V7262/3: 4300: 12.00

Barapasaurus                   ~2.5         "       ~343      ~29   ~48      420   .017+.352=.369
IRIS: 6400:13.65

Cetiosaurus                      ~2.6         "       ~350        38   ~45    ~433   .023+.356=.379
OUMNH large spec: ~11000: 16.15

Patagosaurus                      3.35       "        410         38     105     553   .023+.464=.487
PVL 4170: 8450: 13.60

Haplocanthosaurus              2.4         "      ~340         21    ~30      391   .012+.333=.345 
CMNH 10380:  ~12800: 17.45  CM 572: ~5000: 12.75

Jobaria                               2.8         "        405         26      32      463   .016+.393=.409
MNN TIG3: 16300:18.00

Brontosaurus                      3.1         "        380         70      70      520   .042+.405=.447
CMNH 3018: 17500 (neck 1600, tail 2700): 17.85 
                                       2.9         "        360         60      67      487   .036+.384=.420
YPM 1980: 14900:17.25                            
                                       2.6         "       330                   51    ~440   .036+.343=.380
FMNH P25112: 15900:18.30
                                       2.7         "       350         58      48      456   .035+.358=.393
UWGM 15556:13500:17.10                    

Apatosaurus                       2.45        "      305          72      40      423   .043+.311=.354
NSMT 20375:7780: 14.70  YPM 1860: ~20000:~20.00

Supersaurus                    ~2.75         "     ~350      ~100   ~30   ~480    .061+.340=.400
BYU 9025: ~37000:~23.80

Barosaurus                        3.3         "        380        125   ~75      580   .075+.410=.485
AMNH 6341: 11600:~15.20  

Diplodocus carnegii             3.1          "        340         65      115     490   .039+.410=.449
CMNH 84: 11400 (tail 2800):15.42
D. sp.                              2.45       "        296      ~45       70      411    .027+.330=.357
USNM 10865: 10000:16.00
D. (=Seismosaurus)           3.4         "     ~380       ?75    ~115     570     .045+.445=.490
NMMNH 3690: ~30000 (tail >5000):~20.50

Dicraeosaurus                    2.75       "        350         37      65      452   .022+.374=.396  
HMN m: 4960:12.20

Amargasaurus                     3.3        "        405         42     100     547   .025+.455=.480
MACN-N 15: 3830:10.50

Nigersaurus                      ~1.9        "      ~255       ~12    ~35   ~302    .007+.261=.268
MNN composite: ~1900:~10.00

Rebbachisaurus                 ~2.5        "       ~330       ~30   ~45   ~405    .018+.338=.356     
MUCPv-205: ~7400:14.40

Opisthocoelicaudia              3.1        "        445       ~30     36      511   .018+.433=.451
ZPAL MgD 1/48: ~8400:13.95

Saltasaurus                          3.7        "         550         24     37      611   .014+.528=.542
PVL 4017-79: 2480:8.75

Huabeisaurus                       2.6         "        346         60     38      444   .036+346=.382
HBV 2000: 8600:14.90

Rapetosaurus juvenile         ~2.8         "        370         75     30      475   .045+.360=.405
FMNH PR2209: ~800:6.57

Alamosaurus                      ~3.9        "        550         60     45      655   .036+.536=.572
TMM 43621-1: ~1100:~6.50  41541: ~16300:16.10

Futalognkosaurus                ~3.8        "     ~500      ~ 90   ~45   ~635   .054+.491=.545
MUCPv-323: ~50000:~24.00

Argentinosaurus                 ~4         
PVPH-1: ~55000:~24.00

 

PROSAUROPODS                  femur    body       tail      total         x 0.95

Anchisaurus                      ~2.7         "         350       ~60      410           .390
YPM 1883: ~20:1.96

Plateosaurus gracilis           2.35        "       ~295       ~65    ~360         ~.342   
SMNS 5175: ~260:4.80
                                    ~2.2         "       ~290      ~50     ~340        ~.323
SMNS 11838: ~230:4.70
P.  longiceps                        2.5         "         310         70      380           .361
HMN XXV: 440:5.60  VT 13200: ~780:6.80   MB Rv1.1: 1300:8.10
P. engelhardti                    ~2.3         "      ~303       ~52    ~355         ~.337
BSP XLVI: ~1850:9.30

Massospondylus                  2.6          "         330         60      390           .371
QG 1159: 93:3.30  BPI 3054: 190:4.17
Embryo                               4.75         "         655        ~70      725          .689     
BP/1/5347A:0.006:0.11

Lufengosaurus                    2.6          "        340         55       395           .375
GSC V15 LVP: 1650:8.60

Yunnanosaurus                   2.6          "      ~345       ~55    ~400         ~.380
IVP AS V20: ~230:4.45

Jingshanosaurus                 2.6          "         345         55     400            .380
MLD LV003: 1600:8.50

Riojasaurus                       3.8          "         510         70      580            .551
PVL 3808: 820:6.00

 

BASAL ORNITHISCHIANS   femur     trunk      neck     tail   total     x 0.95
& legs    & head  

Lesothosaurus                    2.15       .525      270        21      36     327      .311
ZDUC B.17: 2.4:1.04

Scutellosaurus                    ~3.5          "                                      ~530      .505
MNA 175: ~3:0.93  MNA 1752: ~5:1.14

Scelidosaurus                      4.1        .352      159          8       21    188      .179 
NHMUK R1111: 275:4.06

 

STEGOSAURS

Huayangosaurus                  4.1      .352        158         9      20      187       .178
ZDM T7001: 475:4.90

Tuojiangosaurus                  4.1          "          168         5      15     188       .179
CV 00209: 2750:8.75

Kentrosaurus                     2.6       .525         330         70    400    .380
HMN MTD: 670:6.35        

Gigantspinosaurus              2.85        "            352        83    435      .413
ZDM 0019:680: 6.20      

Stegosaurus stenops           1.95         "           245        50    295      .280
USNM 4934: 2240:10.50 
?USNM 4937: 3200-4000:~12.00
S. ungulatus                      1.45        "           180        40     220      .209
YPM 1853: 3830:13.82

 

ANKYLOSAURS

Gastonia                              ~9         .31       ~260    ~7      ~14  ~281    ~.267
CEUM: ~1850:5.90

Sauropelta                            5.8        .31        159       8        16    183      .174
AMNH 3030: 1990:7.00

Edmontonia                          6.6        .31        189      14    ~11     214      .203  
AMNH 5665 & USNM 11868: 3070:~7.75

Pinacosaurus                      14.8        .31       408       19      37     464      .441
PIN 614: 950:4.00 ~1850: ~5.00

Euoplocephalus                   11.9       .31        324       22      33     379      .360
NHMUK 5161: 2320:5.80

Ankylosaurus                      ~13          "                                      ~415      ~395
AMNH 5214: ~3900:6.70   CMN 8880: ~6000:~7.80

HETERODONTOSAURS     

Heterodontosaurus               2.75     .525       330      38       56    424      .403
SAM K1332: 3.4:1.12

 

PACHYCEPHALOSAURS

Homalocephale                      3.5      .352       136      19        9     164      .156
GI SPS 100/51: 36:2.18

Pachycephalosaurus            ~1.95     .352        58        10     4.5     72.5      .69
N/A:~190: 4.61  AMNH 1696: ~450:~6.20

 

PSITTACOSAURS

Psittacosaurus mongoliensis    3.35     .525       390      55       65    510      .485
AMNH 6254: 14.2:1.62

P.  neimongoliensis                3.6       .525       403      77    ~65    545      .518
IVPP 12-0888-2: 7.9:1.30

 

CERATOPSIANS                           femur    trunk     head   neck   tail   total     x 0.95
& legs

Archaeoceratops                  ~3.6      .525     397      101     28      22   ~548    ~.521  
IVPP 11114: ~9:~1.35

Leptoceratops                         4.7        "       460      190     34      30    714      .678
CMN 8889: 93:2.70

Protoceratops                         4.0        "       410      130     32     36     608      .578
AMNH 6466: 164:~3.45

Montanoceratops                    4.1        "       437     115     30      48     630       .599
AMNH 5464: 170:3.46   

Albertaceratops                     ~3.25      "     ~392    ~62    ~22    ~21  ~497     ~.472   
Composite: ~3800:~10.50

Centrosaurus apertus               3.0        "        361       60      22    ~20    463      .440
YPM 2015: 1470 :7.89
C. nasicornis                          3.6        "        420       70      24      34    548      .521
AMNH 5351: 1460:7.40
C. sp. juvenile                       3.6        "        415       70      23       38     546     .519
USNM 7953: 138:3.37

Styracosaurus                         3.7        "        440       75      22      25    562      .534
AMNH 5372: 1830:7.90

Chasmosaurus belli                  3.3        "        386       78      21      25    510      .485
ROM 843: 2060:8.55                
C. russelli                             ~3.5       "      ~424       60      25    ~17  ~526      .500
CMN 2280: 1550: ~7.60

Pentaceratops                          3.7       "         443       76      28      17   565      .537
PMU R268: 2520:8.80  OMNH 10165: ~4700:10.80

Anchiceratops                         3.6        "        440       65      37      10    552      .524
CMN 8538: 1180:6.90 

Triceratops                             4.25       "        516       90      24    ~16    646     .614
USNM 4842: 6420:11.50  BYU: ~9000? USNM 4276: ~9300:~13.00

 

ORNITHOPODS                           femur   trunk     neck    tail     total  total x 0.95
& legs  & head  

Agilisaurus                            1.9       "         235        16     38      291      .276
ZDM T6001: 7.5:1.58

Othnielosaurus                        2.1       "        271        18     35       324     .308
BYU ESM 163: 9:1.62  YPM 1882: ~31:2.44

Hypsilophodon                        2.55      "        300        30      62     392      .372
NHMUK R196: 8.8:1.50  R5829: ~21:2.00

Parksosaurus                          2.2    .525      275        18      40      333     .316
ROM 804: 43:2.70

Rhabdodon                             2.93      "        360        52     35        447      .425
composite: 108:3.33

Thescelosaurus                       1.95      "        255          8      32      295      .280
USNM 7757: 86:3.55

Tenontosaurus                        3.15      "        355        20     105    480      .456
OU 11: 597:5.75

Talenkauen                             2.46      "        310         16     50      376     .357
MPM 10001: 308: 5.00

Gasparinisaura                       ~2.4       "                                        ~375   ~.355
MUCPv-208: ~1.75:0.90  MUCPv-213: ~3: ~1.1 MUCPv-215: ~13:~1.8

Dryosaurus                             2.35      "         290        15      55     360    .342
HMN dy I:45: 2.68  HMN dy 36: 79:3.23  YPM 1876: 103:3.53

Camptosaurus dispar                 2.65      "        349         18      31     400    .380
USNM 5818: 513:5.80 YPM 1877: ~474:5.65  P84.15.5: ~1700:8.60
juvenile                                 ~2.5      "          338          17     27     382    .363   
USNM 2210: ~43:2.58          
C. aphanoecetes juvenile            2.27     "          301          17   ~29     347    .330  
CM 11337: 140:3.95

Muttaburrasaurus                       ~2.7     "         ~356       ~20   ~31  ~407    .387
QM F6140:  ~2800:10.15

Iguanodon                                3.0      "                                           455     .432
IRSNB 1534: 3230:10.25

Mantellisaurus                           2.4      "                                          365     .347
NHMUK R5764: 750:6.78

Dollodon                                  2.45     "                                          370     .351
IRSNB 1551: 1070:7.60

Ouranosaurus                            2.65     "                                          400     .380
MNHM GDF 300: 2220:9.45

Probactrosaurus                        ~2.4     "                                         ~363     .345
PIN 2232/10-9: ~1000:7.50

Bactrosaurus                              2.3     "                                          350     .333
AMNH 6553: 1180:8.00

Tethyshadros                              4.0     "                                          606     .576                                       
SC 57021: 300:4.20

Gryposaurus                              1.95     "                                          300     .285
ROM 764: 2220:10.41

Edmontosaurus regalis male?        1.93     "                                          294     .280           
ROM 5167: 3670:12.40
female?                                    2.1      "                                          320     .304
CMN 8399: 2935:11.18
E. annectens immature                2.2      "                                          336     .319
DMNH 1493: 2400:10.30
adult                                        2.15    "                                          330     .314
AMNH 5730: 3170:11.35

Shantungosaurus                         2.2      "                                          338     .320
PMNH 5: 9900: 16.50  1:~13000: 18.05

Brachylophosaurus                      2.05     "                                          313     .297
ROM 794: 4150: 12.65    ???:6800: 14.91

Maiasaura                                 1.95     "                                          300     .285
ROM 44770: 2250:~10.50
Nestling                                   2.1       "                                          323    .307
MOR: 4.1:1.25

Prosaurolophus                           2.05     "                                          310     .298
ROM 787: 2020:9.97

Saurolophus osborni                     1.95     "                                          298    .283
AMNH 5220: 2970:11.50
S. angustirostris                          1.9      "                                           290    .276
PIN 551-8: 3280:12.00  PIN 551-357: ~9000?:~17:00?

Tsintaosaurus                           2.25     "                                           345    .327
PMNH V725: 2530:10.40

Parasaurolophus                         2.5      "                                           380    .361
ROM 768: 2615:10.15

Hypacrosaurus intermedius           2.14     "                                           327    .310
ROM 845: 2510:10.55
H. casuarius                              2.25     "                                           340    .323
AMNH 5240: 2810:10.80
H. altispinus                              2.13     "                                           325    .309
CMN 8501: 2640:10.74   AMNH 5272: 3370:~11.65
H. stebingeri
MOR 549: 8.60
embryo/hatchling                      1.35     "                                           206    .196
TMP: 0.8:0.84
?juvenile                                  2.06     "                                           315    .300
AMNH 5340: 260:5.00

Lambeosaurus lambei                  2.0       "                                          305     .290
ROM 1218: 2430:10.67
L. magnicristatus                      ~2.1       "                                         ~320  ~.305
TMP 66.04.01: ~2500:10.55

Olorotitan                                ~2.3      "                                         ~350   ~.333
AEHM 2/845: ~3100:1100

 

THERIZINOSAURS

Falcarius                                  2.42      "                                          412     .350
UMNH: 100:3.45

Alxasaurus                              ~2.5       "                                        ~425   ~.360
IVPP 88402L: ~400:555

Beipiaosaurus                           ~2.2       "                                        ~375   ~.320
IVPP V11559: 40:2.65

Nothronychus                            ~2.3       "                                        ~390    ~.332 
UMNH VP16420: ~850:~7.15

Nanshiungosaurus                      ~3.3       "                                        ~560    ~.480                      
Type: ~600:~5.70 

Therizinosaurus
MHP100/15: ~3000:~9.75

 

PREDATORY                                                                                   x0.95, 0.90, 0.85
DINOSAURS                                                                   sometimes
& BIRDS                                                                      x 1.06 feathers

Marasuchus                               1.05    .525      126     16      20      162       .154    
PVL 3870: 0.09:0.44  PVL 3871: ~0.18:0.55

Silesaurus                                 1.16"        140     17    ~20    ~177       .168
ZPAL Ab 111/361: 9:2.00

Eoraptor                                    1.33      "        145     18     ~40     203       .193
PVSJ 512: 1.9:~1.60
 
Staurikosaurus                            1.0       "        110   ~19      21      150       .143
MCZ 1669: 12:2.29

Herrerasaurus                            1.18      "        130     20     30       180       .171
PVL 2566: 124:4.73  UNSJ: 210:5.60

Coelophysis bauri gracile             1.65       "        174     36     40        250      .213/.239
AMNH 7223: 13.5/15.3:2.10
robust                                      2.15      "         238    36      54       328      .278/.313
AMNH 7224: 17.8/19.9:2.10
GR 143: 26?:2.30
juvenile                                   1.24       "        153    15       32       200       .180
composite: 2.4:1.25
C. rhodesiensis                          1.45       "        160     25     35        220      .187/.210
QG 1: 11.6/13:2.08

Liliensternus                              1.5        "         172    28     40        240       .216
HMN R1291: 127:4.40

Dilophosaurus                            1.7        "        188     56     30        274       .247
UCMP 37302: 283:5.50

Limusaurus                              ~1.1        "                                     ~180     ~1.62
IVPP V15923: ~10:2.08   IVPP V15924: ~15:~2.40  

Elaphrosaurus                          ~1.45      "                                     ~230     ~.207
HMN dd: 210:5.29

Ceratosaurus                             2.2        "         260    36     58        354       .319
USNM 4735: 524:6.20

Baryonyx                                 ~2.1       "                                      ~340     ~.305
NHMUK R9951: ~1200:8.30

Suchomimus                            ~2.3       "                                      ~380     ~.340
MNN GDF500: ~2500:10.75

Spinosaurus                            ~2.5
IPHG: ~5000

unnamed genus sinensis            1.7       "         190    59    25?      274      ~.247    
KMV 8701: 310:5.65

Abelisaurus garrodi                     2.0        "       ~262   ~37 ~24       ~323    ~.291
MCF-PVPH-236: ~690: ~7.00

Skorpiovenator bustingorryi         2.0         "       ~258   ~39  ~30     ~327    ~.294
MMCH-PV 48: ~1600: ~9.30

Carnotaurus                             1.9         "         250    25  ~30        305      .275
MACN-CH 894: 2070:10.30

Masiakasaurus                       ~1.8        “       ~218    ~46  ~25      ~289    ~.260
FMNH PR2481:~11:~1.85 

Eustreptospondylus
                  1.55        "         192     32    26       250      .225   
OUM J13558: 218:5.20

Piatnitzkysaurus                      1.65        "         206    30    32        268      .241
PVL 4073: 275:5.50

Yangchuanosaurus shangyou.     1.95        "         242    36    38        316      .284
CV 00215: 1330:8.80
                                           2.1         "         255    40      38        333      .300
ZDM 0024: 1975:9.80  CV 00216: ~2800:~11.00
Y. dongi                                 2.0         "         250    38   ~38     ~326      .293      
IVPP 10600: 1340:8.76

Monolophosaurus                    1.95        "        239     54   ~40       ~333     .283
IVPP 84019: 475:~6.25

Allosaurus fragilis                    2.2         "         274    46     58       378      .321
USNM 4734: 1010:7.70
?                                        1.85        "         220    46     46       295      .265  
DINO 11541: 460:6.33
A. sp.                                  2.05       "          256    44     50       350      .298 
DINO 2560: 1300:8.60  3694:~1520:9.05
A. maximus                             ~2.2?
OMNH 01708: 3000:11.10

Acrocanthosaurus                     2.1        "         252    52     50       354      .300
NCSM 14345: 4400:~12.80

Giganotosaurus                       2.35        "         275    70     55       400      .340
MUCPv-CH-1: 6850:14.30  MUCPv-95: ~8700:15.5?

Albertosaurus libratus               2.15        "         275     65     30       370     .315
AMNH 5458: 2340:10.25   
juvenile                                2.0          "         275     40     30       345     .293
AMNH 5664: 694:7.00
A. sarcophagus                      ~2.35        "                                      ~400   ~.340
ROM 807: ~2500:10:20

Daspletosaurus                         2.4         "         290     80    40       410      .348
AMNH 5438: 2400:10.00

Tarbosaurus bataar                     2.3         "                                    392      .333  
PIN 551-1: ~4000:~12.00       
subadult                                 2.35        "                                     401     .341
PIN 551-3: 2144:9.70
juvenile                                  2.2          "                                     375     .319
MgD-1/3: 755:7.00
juvenile                                 1.95         "                                     335     .285
PIN 552-2: 510:6.40
juvenile (formerly assigned to Raptorex) 
                                             1.7         "         224     33   ~30      287     .244
LH PV18: 66:3.38

Tyrannosaurus rex                   2.7          "            345     86    30        461     .392
FMNH PR2081: 6140:13.15
                                          2.6          "            320     80    40       440     .374
AMNH 5027 (& CM 9380): 5670:~13.00
                                          2.65        "            340     77    40       457     .388
BHI 3033: 5622:12.85                            
juvenile                               1.23        "            154     23    32       209     .178
BMRP 2002.41: 610:7.90             

Huaxiagnathus                       1.48       "             189      27  ~36       252     .214
CAGS-IG01-301: ~5.2:~1.52

Juravenator juvenile                1.8        "              217      52  ~40    309     .263  
JME Sch 200: 0.25:0.52

Compsognathus                      1.8         "             232     30    46        308     .262   
BSP 1563: 0.54:0.67  MNHN CNJ 79: ~2.4:1.10

Sinosauropteryx                      1.58       "             203     35    31        269     .229 
GMV 2123: 0.23:0.53  NIGP 127587: ~1:0.86    

Sinosauropteryx?                     1.0         "            140     20     11       171     .145
GMV 2124: 1.1:1.03

Sinocalliopteryx                      1.14        "          156     24    14       194       .165
JMP-V—05-8-01: 18:2.52

Scipionyx juvenile                 ~1.95         "          190   110  ~33     ~333      .283
SAS:0.1: 0.37 

Ornitholestes                        ~1.34         "       ~188      8    ~32     ~228     .194 
AMNH 619: ~11.9:2.07

Sinornithomimus                    1.36         "          212            20       232      .197
IVPP 11797-10: 46:3.23      

Struthiomimus                        1.4           "          210             25       235     .200
AMNH 5339: 153:4.80

Ornithomimus                        1.35         "          205             25       230     .196
ROM 851: 111:4.35
1.4          "          217             20       237    .202
CMN 12228: 144:4.68

Gallimimus                             1.5           "         225              35       260     .221
DSP 100/11: 438:6.60   
juvenile                                1.4            "         215              25       240     .204
MgD-1/94: 26.8:2.67

Scansoriopteryx embryo           1.53        "        129     98     20       247     .208
CAGS 607: 0.0068:0.165

Bambiraptor  juvenile              1.23         "        110     85     15       210    .179
FIP 001: 2.1:1.19

Deinonychus                         ~1.95         "      ~208     94     32     ~334     .284
YPM 5210: ~60:~3.10

Velociraptor                            1.77         "         182     86     34       302     .257
MIG 100/25: 11:1.85  100/986: ~24:2.38  AMNH 6515: ~6
 
Buitreraptor                            1.06         "         98      58   ~25       181    .154
MOCA 24.5: 3.2:1.44

Anchiornis                                0.9          "        102     44      6        152     .129
LPM-B00169: 0.26:0.66

Jinfengopteryx                         1.06        "        112     60     10      182     .155     
CAGS IG 04 0801: 0.43:0.74

Mei                                        0.81        "         88      43      7       138     .117
IVPPV12733: 0.43:0.81

Sinornithoides                          0.91        "        102     41     13      156     .133
IVPP V9612: 2.5:1.40

Stenonychosaurus                  ~1.5          "                                    ~260   ~.220       
MOR 7.24.8.64: 65: ~3.50                               
MOR: ~33: 2.80  GI 100/1: ~25:  AMNH 6516:~12: ~2.00

Epidexipteryx                           1.65        "        198      82     1        281      239      
IVPP V15471: 0.22:0.51

Protarchaeopteryx                     ~0.9        "                                     ~1.5    ~1.30
GMV 2125: 1.6:1.20

Caudiptyeryx                            0.66        "        110                3       113       .96
GMV 97-9-A: 2.2:1.49

Chirostenotes?                       ~1.55         "                                      ~265     .225
composite:  ~180:4.90

Gigantoraptor                          ~1.5          "                                      ~260  ~.220
LH V0011: ~2000:11.00

Oviraptor                               ~1.25         "                                     ~210  ~.180
AMNH 6517: ~22:~2.60

Citipati                                   1.72          "         282              12       294     .250
IGM 100/42: ~74:~3.50
juvenile                                  1.46         "         242               8        250     .213
MIG 100/1127 & 1002: ?4.5:?1.45

Conchoraptor                             1.24         "         180               24      204     .173
MIG 100/30: 17:2.40

Avimimus                               ~1.4           "                                      ~236   ~.201 
PIN 3907-1: ~12:2.05

Mononykus                              1.31          "         210              13       223     .190
MGI 107/6: 3.4:1.38
main   flight       total                               
body   muscles

Archaeopteryx                     1.41-1.48      "        211    17-27   228-238  .205-.214             
HMN 1880: 0.204-0.214:0.525
                                       1.34-1.40      "        199    16-26   215-225  .194-.203
NHMUK 37001: 0.297-0.310:0.605
                                       1.10-1.15      "        164    13-21   177-185  .160-.167
JM 2257: 0.056-0.058:0.37     

Microraptor                         0.62-0.66      "         91     9-13.5  100-105     .9-.95
IVPP V13352: 0.57-0.6:0.97

Sinornithosaurus                 0.89-0.93      "        78/39/13=130 13-20  143-150  .129-.135
IVPP V12 811: 2.9-3:1.48

Jeholornis                           1.76            "       246        38        284          .256
IVPP V12 13274: 0.75:0.75

Sapeornis                            1.68          "        251       39          270         .243
IVPP V12698 & CAGS IG 02 609: 0.9:0.81

Confuciusornis                      1.53          "        212       36          248         .233
0.17: 0.48

Sinornis                               1.5           "        207       35          242         .218
BPV 538: 0.014:0.21   IVPP V9769: 0.018:0.23
tibia                             

Emeus                                 0.82      .75                                   384          .346
CM viiic: 87:4.73

Dinornis                               0.39       "                                     182          .165
CM 1.2.15: 252:8.65   NHMUK A608: ~274:8.89   :~380:9.90

Aepyornis                             0.7         "                                      330          .297
MP: 320: 7.70  MP: ~370:8.10

Dromornis                          ~0.8         "                                    ~375       ~.338
~380: 7.80

 

THECODONTS -                            femur     trunk     neck    tail       total     x 0.95
& CROCODILIANS                                    & legs   & head

Proterosuchus                        5.7     .018       75        22        15       112       .106
NM C3016: 19:~1.50

Chanaresuchus                       2.9        "          36         11       10        57        .054
MCZ 4035: 6.1:1.28  4036: ~10:1.51

Parasuchus                             4.2        "          57         13       12        82        .078
ISI R42: 58:2.40

Euparkeria                              4.3        "          59         15     10.5     84.5      .080
SAM 5867: 0.75:0.558  6047: ~1.0:0.616

Shansisuchus                          5.1         "          65          24       11      100       .095
IVPP 2501: 188:~3.33

Vjushkovia                              4.1        "          56          15      10        81        .077
IVPP V3239 composite: 105: ~2.95

Saurosuchus                            2.7        "          37            8        8        53         .050
composite: 850:6.80

Postosuchus                            2.4         "         32            8         7       47         .045
TTU 9000: 310:5.05

Riojasuchus                             4.4         "         58           14      14       86        .082
PVL 3828: 26:1.80

Stagonolepis                            3.7         "         56            3       14       73        .069
EM 46R: 116:3.15 (based on Walker 1961 skel rest)

Lotosaurus                              3.5         "         60            3         3       66       .063
IVPP 4880::

Terrestrisuchus                        0.7        "         8.4          2.8      2.5    13.7      .013
P. 47/21: 0.13:0.57

Pseudhesperosuchus                0.75        "         9.3          2.7       3       15       .014
PVL 3830: 2.8:~1.55

 

REPTILES -

Megalania
~1000 (based on scaling from modern monitors, and cross comparison of body part volumes with thecodonts)

 

THERAPSIDS -                                femur                                       total    x 0.95

Thrinaxodon                            4.1     .265                                          80       .076
AMMM 5265/SAM 1395: 1.41:0.70 (based on Brink 1956 skel rest) 

 

MAMMALS -                                   femur     body    head    total   x 0.95   

Rhinoceros                               9.5    .395                               610     .580
USNM: 1050 (predicted 800-1100 [1.41 m shoulder height]):4.80

Brontops                                   6.0    .525        820      90      910      .865
YPM 12048: 3300:8.20

Indricotherium                         3.65       "           36       56      558      .530
AMNH 26387: 7770:12.85  AMNH 26175: 16500:16.50

Loxodonta                               3.15       "          400      80      480       .456
AMNH 3283: 6300 (predicted 4800-6800 [3.18 shoulder height]):12.60 

Elephas recki                           3.18       "                               486       .462   
~13800: ~16:30

Mammuthus                            3.07        "                               472       .447
DMNH 1359: 7900:13.70